Objectives: This study was conducted to identify a moderated mediation effect of parenting anxiety through self-reflection of mothers on parenting self-efficacy of childhood attachment in mothers with children in early childhood. Methods: For this purpose, data were collected from January to March 2020 from mothers with children aged 3 to 7 in nine regions across the country, including Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, by analyzing a total of 179 questionnaires. Results: A mediating effect of parenting anxiety was shown on the effect of childhood attachment in mothers to parenting self-efficacy, and a moderating effect of self-reflection of mothers was significant in the relationship between parenting anxiety and parenting self-efficacy. Also, a significant moderated mediation effect of parenting anxiety through self-reflection of mothers on the effect of parenting self-efficacy on childhood attachment in mothers with children in early childhood was found. Conclusions: Based on the results, implications for research and practice in the field of parent-child relationship counseling and limitations of the study were discussed.